Knowing how to tell if a property has subsidence is vital if you are looking to move house any time soon.
Many buyers will shudder at the mere mention of the word, yet, in many cases, it’s not as big a deal as you may first think.
Thankfully, by the end of this article, you’ll have a pretty good idea of what subsidence is, how to identify it, and what to do about it.
Let’s Start With the Definition Of Subsidence
According to the dictionary, the meaning of subsidence is…
the gradual caving in or sinking of an area of land.
When that movement of land starts to cause cracks and structural issues with a property, that’s when the alarm bells should start ringing.
In fact, it may be difficult to get a mortgage on a property with subsidence, not all insurance providers will cover it, and it may be very costly to fix.
But, that’s only when the movement is significant.
What’s The Difference Between Subsidence & Settlement?
When a new structure is built, the ground it was built on sometimes moves and compresses as it adjusts to the weight of the new structure.
This kind of movement is called ‘settlement’.
While settlement can cause some of the same symptoms as subsidence, any damage is usually relatively minor and will stop fairly soon after the building was erected.
Subsidence, on the other hand, is caused by loss of support underneath the foundations, which can lead to significant problems.
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What’s The Difference Between Heave & Subsidence?
When the ground underneath a building swells up, sometimes because it has taken on too much water, it can cause similar issues to subsidence.
However, this type of movement is called ‘heave’.
Heave is much rarer than subsidence but can still effect properties and cause serious structural issues.
So, the overall impact is similar but heave is when the ground rises under a structure, subsidence is when the ground drops under a structure.
What Are The Signs Of Subsidence?
When looking for signs of subsidence in a property, there are several things you can look out, including…
The best-known and often most the obvious indicators of subsidence are cracked walls.
We’re not talking about a few hairline cracks around window frames or along plasterboard joints – these are almost always just cosmetic.
Instead, we mean significant cracks. If the crack is visible on both sides of the wall or is more than 3mm wide (thicker than a 10p coin), it may indicate a more serious issue.
If the wall is covered by wallpaper then cracks may not be visible but can be detected by looking for tearing or rippling of wallpaper that isn’t caused by damp.
Here are the most common types of cracks and what they typically mean:
Stepped & Diagonal Cracks
A stepped crack is one which runs up or down a wall but follows the line of the mortar to create a step-like pattern.
Diagonal cracks occur when the crack goes through the bricks rather than following the mortar joints.
Both can indicate that the foundations of the building have moved though stepped cracks are less likely to be serious.
If the property has a diagonal crack you would be advised to seek the help of a chartered surveyor to assess the seriousness of the problem.
A crack running down a wall from top to bottom or bottom top in a more or less straight line is classed as a vertical crack.
Again, the crack is likely to indicate more serious issues if it goes through bricks rather than following the mortar joints.
Vertical cracks can indicate that one or both ends of the foundations of the building are dropping (subsidence) or that the middle of the wall is rising (heave).
If the wall is a retaining wall a vertical crack may also indicate the wall is failing perhaps due to excessive weight or pressure directly behind, or close to, the crack.
A crack running from side to side is a horizontal crack and will typically follow the mortar joints rather than breaking through bricks.
That doesn’t make them any less severe, though, as horizontal cracks often are a sign a wall is in the early stage of failure.
Horizontal cracks are most common in retaining walls and often indicate the wall is not strong enough to support the weight of what it is retaining.
Crooked Doorways & Window Frames
Many people think they know how to tell if a property has subsidence simply because they know to look for cracks.
While cracks are one of the biggest indicators, they are not the only one. Crooked doorways and window frames are another big sign.
That’s because as a property moves, it can sometimes twist or move more in one area than another. This leads to doorways and window frames that don’t quite sit square.
Doors or windows that stick can sometimes be an indication of this (or may just be a sign the hinges need adjusting!) but you can always check whether the frames are level by using a spirit level.
Sloping Or Uneven Floors
The spirit level may come in handy again here as a sloping or uneven floor can also be an indication that the property has moved.
That’s because (in the case of suspended floors) the floor joists are bedded into the walls. Any movement that affects the wall will have a knock-on effect on the floor.
If you own or are considering buying a property that is showing any of these tell-tale signs of subsidence you should definitely get a survey carried out.
You can use our handy tool to find and compare chartered surveyors near you.
In many cases, you’ll find that any subsidence is considered long-standing and non-progressive and therefore is nothing to worry about.
But, if the issue is more serious, the sooner you deal with it the better as it will only get worse over time.
What Is Long-Standing, Non-Progressive Subsidence?
We mentioned it in the previous section and if you own or are looking to buy a property with signs of subsidence, “long-standing and non-progressive” is a term you’ll definitely want to hear!
What does it mean? Simply that movement has affected the building but that it happened a long time ago and is no longer considered to be an issue.
In other words, it means that whatever caused the ground to move has stopped having an effect and so no further movement is expected to affect the property.
If your surveyor confirms your subsidence is long-standing and non-progressive it will mean the damage is now only cosmetic and that you’ll find it a little easier to get insurance and a mortgage.
If it is unclear whether your subsidence is still progressing, it’s possible to buy a crack monitoring kit to track any changes in the severity of the crack over time.
What Causes Subsidence?
Subsidence can be caused by a number of different issues, sometimes they can be unique to the property in question,
However, the most common causes of subsidence include:
Areas that were used for mining in the past are particularly prone to subsidence issues as old mine shafts collapse and the ground moves.
Certain soil types (such as clay) are also more prone to causing movement, that’s because they tend to expand and shrink depending on the conditions.
Even firmer soils such as those with high amounts of chalk and limestone can cause subsidence as the rocky materials dissolve over time.
Sometimes the cause of subsidence is entirely man-made, such as in the case of inadequate foundations.
Often this is an error at the build stage when the builders either didn’t quite get their calculations right or used inferior materials.
However, it can also be introduced at a later stage such as if an extra storey has been added to a property without any strengthening of the foundations to compensate for the extra weight.
Trees & Bushes
Perhaps surprisingly, trees and bushes are one of the most common causes of subsidence in the UK.
It’s also the reason why you are often asked by insurers whether there are any “trees taller than 10m and within 5m of your property?”
The problem is that the roots of trees and bushes can suck away the moisture in the soil from around the foundations of a building.
This causes the soil to shrink and can lead to movement. In fact, with some trees, the roots themselves can actually grow into the foundations and crack and dislodge the foundations.
Water is also a common cause of subsidence. If you have broken or leaking pipes, either below the ground or draining into the ground, it can wash away soil.
Over time, this can wash out the soil from underneath the foundations of the wall and cause movement.
Unfortunately, pipes leaking underground are hard to spot until the ground has already started moving, by then it may already have caused significant damage.
How To Fix Subsidence
If you’re unlucky enough that your chartered surveyor has confirmed you have or will potentially have structural issues due to subsidence, you’ll need to take remedial action.
Your surveyor should provide advice on the best course of action to take. In most cases it will involve one or more of the following:
Remove The Cause
If your subsidence is caused by trees, bushes, or drainage issues, the very first thing you should do is address the cause.
If this is a drainage issue then you’ll need to stop the leak by fixing the pipes or whatever is causing the issue.
When the problem is caused by trees or bushes, the issue is slightly more complex as simply removing the tree or bush may cause further issues.
Instead, carefully managed pruning may be the best route forward. It’s best to consult with a surveyor and tree surgeon for advice.
Only once the cause is completely addressed and is no longer causing an issue can you look to repair the damage and prevent future problems.
One of the most extreme measures to fix subsidence, underpinning is also one of the most effective.
It involves digging out a cavity below the affected foundations and filling it with concrete. Essentially you are strengthening the foundations of the property.
While it can be a tricky and costly job (particularly if access is difficult), as few as 10% of properties with subsidence actually require underpinning.
It’s therefore only a last resort, especially as it will affect your ability to get home insurance that covers subsidence in the future.
In some cases, subsidence issues can be resolved using wall ties.
These vary from large metal plates attached to one side of a wall and tightened, through to metal rods that are placed inside the mortar joints.
Typically they’ll be used when a wall is leaning or on retaining walls that are struggling to cope with the weight behind them.
Often they’ll be used in addition to strengthening the foundations.
A wall buttress is sometimes used in severe cases of movement where a wall needs significant additional support to avoid collapsing.
The buttress is simply another brick wall that’s built at an angle to lean into the wall that is suffering from movement.
It counteracts the pressure to provide increased stability. Buttresses are often seen on older buildings that have suffered from obvious subsidence.
Address The Cosmetics
Once the main causes of subsidence have been addressed and the necessary fixes applied you’ll probably need to address the cosmetic damage.
This should only be done once you are sure there will be no further subsidence issues to avoid the cosmetic damage re-appearing.
Smaller cracks should be able to be addressed with crack filling compound, sanding, and repainting.
More significant cracking may require a whole reskim of the plaster of the wall.
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Can You Get A Mortgage On A Property With Subsidence?
We have focused a lot on how to tell if a property has subsidence and what to do about it, but what effect does subsidence have on your ability to get a mortgage?
Put simply, significant subsidence will put many mortgage lenders off.
Of those that will still lend to you, many will request that you get a proper survey carried out by a qualified professional to assess the risk level.
Again, the magic words you are looking for are ‘long-standing and non-progressive’. If your surveyor states this term then most mortgage lenders will be happy to proceed.
Keep in mind though that it may still affect your ability to get insurance and most mortgage lenders require adequate buildings insurance to be in place as a condition of your mortgage.
It’s best to speak to a good mortgage advisor to find out exactly where you stand once you understand more about the level of subsidence your property has.
You can use our handy tool to request help from a mortgage advisor near you.
So, Should You Buy A House With Subsidence?
This is the big question. If you have found your dream home but it appears to be suffering from subsidence, should you still buy it?
There’s no right or wrong answer to that. It depends on your attitude to risk and whether you are prepared to spend the money to put things right.
Virtually any problem can be rectified if you throw enough money at it. The question is more can you afford the time, money and stress to fix things?
Whatever you decide, your first step should always be to seek the advice of an expert, in this case, a chartered surveyor, so you understand the full picture.
Once you know exactly what kind of problems you face, and how difficult it will be to resolve them, you can make the decision whether to proceed with buying the property.
So, hopefully, we’ve helped educate you on how to tell if a property has subsidence.